In this work, the environmental zoning of the Unit La Unión – Gulf of Fonseca was developed, following the requirements of Salvadoran environmental legislation.
For this purpose, a complete multisectoral and integrated territorial diagnosis was carried out on a scale of 1:25.000, including a land-use map and the implementation of a probe made for the autonomous measurement of salinity, electrical conductivity and temperature in real time in the waters of the Gulf.
Diagnostics included geological, soil, soil, agrological, hydrological and hydrogeological analyses. physical and biological oceanography of the Gulf of Fonseca and marine ecosystems. Identification of characteristics, potentialities, threats (droughts, floods, landslides, tsunamis, etc.) and restrictions or constraints of the territory. Specialized analysis of the sedimentation problem experienced by the Gulf area. Fouling of connections of coastal lagoons to the sea, erosion of beaches due to imbalance in sediment transport. An analysis of terrestrial, island and aquatic natural ecosystems was also carried out, identifying biodiversity, aquatic typology and associated ecosystem services. Identification of protected areas such as: ANP, Biological Corridor, Conservation Areas and RAMSAR. Identification of major environmental problems: pollution of seawater, overexploitation of populations of marine organisms, degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems, among others. A socio-economic environment analysis and a climate change study were also conducted.
Once the diagnosis had been completed, a proposal for zoning guidelines was drawn up on a scale of 1/25,000 and the corresponding guidelines for action were drawn up, which allow certain activities to be carried out in certain areas of the territory. All the work was accompanied by abundant cartography supported by intense fieldwork.